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164 



PASADENA CONFERENCE 



The CHAIRMAN: We are very much 
obliged to Mr. Jennings for showing us 
a little further light. Is there anyone else 
in the room who wishes to speak on this 
subject? If not, the time has arrived when 
we ought to adjourn and I now declare this 
session closed. 

Adjourned. 

FOURTH GENERAL SESSION 

(Shakespeare Club, Tuesday, May 23, 

9:30 a. m.) 

(Mr. A. E. Bostwick, presiding.) 
The CHAIRMAN: When a serious 
problem comes up for consideration, it 
can be treated in different ways. Some 
people avoid it, others deny that there is 
any problem and others admit that there 
is a problem, but say that it is insoluble, 
and still others investigate it seriously and 
bring out at least something worth while. 
Those of you who listened to Mr. Chivers' 
paper at Bretton Woods know he has seri- 
ously investigated the question of book- 
binding. I now have the pleasure of intro- 
ducing Mr. CEDRIC CHIVERS of Brook- 
lyn. 

MATERIALS AND METHODS IN BOOK- 
BINDING 

(Supplementary to Bretton Woods 
Exhibit.) 

Speaking of the behavior of books in 
public libraries, as issued by the publish- 
ers, the report of the Binding Committee 
of the American library association says: 

"Cloth-bound books must be withdrawn 
from circulation and sent to the bindery 
when they have been in the hands of less 
than twenty readers. Larger books of 
travel, history, etc., can seldom be used 
more than ten times before being rebound, 
and it is not uncommon to have them torn 
from their covers before being in the hands 
of five readers." 

It is a matter of concern that we should 
recognize the seriousness of such a state- 
ment as this, and it is our business to 
remedy such a condition of things if we 
can. . 



We recently learned in investigating the 
qualities of paper of which modern books 
are composed, that they differ very greatly 
in so many ways and in such degree as is 
set forth in Fig. 1. These variations occur 
in ordinary books, having deleted all the 
books of extraordinary sizes and qualities, 
either of the poor or excellent varieties: 

6^"x4%" will not be recognized as too 
small a book, and 10*4"x8" will be recog- 
nized as not too large a book. 

Books of less weight than % lbs. and 
greater weight than 5^4 lbs. may be dis- 
covered in a library. 

Thinner paper than 2.5M. and thicker 
than 13.25M. may be found. 

Tensile strength so slight that the ordi- 
nary machines would not record it, and 
again paper so stout as greatly to exceed 
20 lbs. to the inch, occur in every library 
of any considerable size. 

There are also sections thinner and 
thicker than those recorded on the accom- 
panying diagram. 

It may, therefore, be taken that the va- 
riations of quality and condition here shown 
are such as have to be dealt with in the 
everyday handling of books in a lending 
library. 

It has been shown that previous to 1890 
papers in vital respects were more nearly 
alike and were stronger by more than 50 
per cent than those used to-day. Indeed, 
the comparison is as 8 to 3. There has 
been little effort made, except in one or 
two directions, to deal with these altera- 
tions in the qualities of books as far as 
their binding is concerned. Librarians and 
bookbinders are fully aware of the far 
greater use to which books are subject in 
the public library over the use they would 
get in the case of the private purchaser. 
We see clearly that the binding which 
would hold in the one case is totally in- 
adequate for the other. 

The cord holding the smaller weight in 
Fig. II is seen to be too slight to hold the 
larger weight. Yet this illustrates the 
state of the case as between the private 
use of a book and the public use of a book, 
with the additional disadvantage that ow- 
ing to the deterioration of paper the bind- 



CHIVERS 



165 



ing represented by the cord has been 
weakened. 

The improved methods which we recom- 
mended for dealing with the different 
classes of paper of which we had become 
cognizant, implied the use of the most ap- 
propriate materials for binding and cover- 
ing books. An examination of the more 
important of these is the matter in hand. 

Testing the various materials used for 
covering the books, we find, as we would 
expect, considerable difference between the 
breaking strain in the direction of the warp 
and the strain suffered by the woof, and 
on Fig. Ill is given the results of a num- 
ber of such tests. It will be seen that the 
ordinary edition cloth, chiefly used in pub- 
lishers' bindings, suffers a strain in the 
warp of 25 and in the woof of only 10 lbs. 
to the half-inch. With stouter library cloth 
the difference is even larger, being 30 for 
the warp and 10 for the woof. 

A practical suggestion is here made — 
that if the cloth were used so that the 
warp should run across the book rather 
than up and down the cover, a certain 
amount of strength would be added to the 
binding. It would not be as much as the 
difference between the two strains, because 
attrition and friction would be the same, 
but considerable additional strength would 
be obtained. An objection to using the 
cloth in this way would be urged, that the 
pattern or design, when it is not an all- 
over and even one will be found in the di- 
rection of the warp, and it is supposed 
aesthetically to be of more importance that 
such a pattern should be up and down the 
book and not across it. This may even on 
aesthetic grounds be an arguable point, but 
as a constructive advantage it would seem 
wise to adopt the suggestion to use the 
cloth in the strongest way of the threads. 

Fig. IV gives the result of testing a num- 
ber of materials one inch wide, used in 
bookbinding for end paper lining, plate lin- 
ing, jointing, etc. These again show the 
variation of strength value in the warp and 
woof. It would be evident that in the use 
of these materials, advantage should be 
taken of the stronger way of the warp, and 
use it in the line of strain. 



Figs. V, VI, VII show the warp and woof 
of several kinds of cloth photomicrographed 
to 56 diameters. They have been prepared 
in order to visualize the difference between 
the warp and the woof, which they there 
clearly do, but are of little importance or 
advantage to our inquiry, other than as il- 
lustrating this one point. It may be of a 
little interest to observe the penetration 
of the coloring matter in the case of the 
thinner face cloth, and the partial permea- 
tion with the thicker qualities. 

We now come to the consideration of the 
mechanical values of leather, the subject 
being of much more importance than that 
of dealing with cotton or linen materials. 
Leather has qualities which no other ma- 
terials possess in adaptability to the bind- 
ing and covering of books, because if wisely 
chosen, it is of far greater variety in thick- 
ness, softness, pliability, tenacity of adhe- 
sion and strength, being capable of adapta- 
tion to the exceedingly varied conditions 
which our diagrams illustrate modern 
books to exhibit. 

The Royal Society of Arts of England 
appointed a committee in 1901 to discover 
the reasons for the decay observed with 
modern leathers, and their very valuable 
report dealt exhaustively with the phase 
of the subject they undertook to consider. 
Some amplification of their inquiry appears 
to be necessary along the lines we are 
now pursuing, for supposing leather to be 
properly tanned and dyed in the manner 
the report specifies, it is still desirable to 
know which leathers supply the best me- 
chanical qualities, as above indicated. 

Apart from the actual wearing of the 
leather in use, which it is impossible to 
follow for the purpose of testing, we may 
subject leather to tearing and breaking 
strains, and obtain some useful data of 
value. The tearing strain is ascertained in 
the fashion depicted by Fig. VIII. 

Fig. IX represents a skin of leather. A, 
B and C represent pieces of leather cut 
for the purposes of testing in different di- 
rections of the skin, A diagonally across 
the shoulder, B horizontally across the 
back, C vertically to the back. There is a 
grain with skins, but not so distinct as 



166 



PASADENA CONFERENCE 



with artificial materials, and a further test 
of breaking strain along the lines of A and 
B will demonstrate this. We have then a 
test with a piece cut as with C, with an- 
other as with B, and a third as A diagon- 
ally across the skin. 

In Fig. X we have set out the result of 
testing a number of different kinds of 
skins. First the thickness in thousandths 
of an inch is given, then the tearing strain 
in pounds. The strength ratio is shown 
and the order of value of the skins com- 
pared with each other. 

The first leather given, Niger leather un- 
pared, with the total thickness of 190, suf- 
fers a tearing strain of 189 lbs., with a 
strength ratio of .99. If this be taken as 
a standard one may readily appreciate the 
values of leathers in respect to their tear- 
ing strains. It is a valuable coincidence 
that the best leather gives a tearing strain 
of one pound for a thousandth of an inch 
in thickness, as it facilitates comparisons. 
An examination of these figures will be in- 
structive. 

Our experiences are ratified with the 
skins of poor quality. Their lives being 
short, we had become cognizant of their 
failure, but our interest is aroused by the 
results given of the more costly and the 
leathers of greater repute. We were pre- 
pared from our practical experience to see 
that the calf leather should be demonstrat- 
ed to be very weak, the strength ratio being 
.21, and the order of value to be 18 in the 
list given, but it must be viewed with some 
alarm to discover that French levant mo- 
rocco should show a strength ratio of .40, 
and to offer for a thickness of 242 thou- 
sandths a tearing strain of only 97 lbs. 
This is against Niger morocco 190 thou- 
sandths to 189 lbs. It arouses the reflec- 
tion that in the effort to obtain the colors 
and brightness required with modern book- 
binding, much of the strength and nature 
of the morocco has been destroyed. 

The leathers in the upper part of the 
table have been chosen with care, and the 
moroccos 7 and 5 and pigskins 6 and 12 
have been prepared under the specifica- 
tion of the Society of Arts. 

The leathers under the title of odd 



pieces, were collected from a small book- 
binder's shop where library books had not 
been bound. In other words, no effort had 
been made to obtain the best leather of the 
different sorts. The results are seen to 
be bad. 

The deterioration of levant morocco is a 
matter to be viewed with alarm. The or 
der of value of one piece is 7, with a 
strength ratio of .63, while for another, the 
order of value is 16, and the strength ratio 
is only .29. These pieces of leather are 
similar in color, and were purchased from 
the same firm, but the poorer quality had 
been in house some fifteen years, shoving 
a very serious deterioration. 

The high value which is shown by the 
Niger leathers is not a little surprising 
when it is remembered that these leathers 
have been tanned by uncivilized natives. 
The figures have been submitted to Mr. 
Seymour Jones, who was a member of the 
committee appointed by the Society of Arts 
above mentioned, and the following val- 
uable letter has been received, dealing 
with the subject from the point of view of 
an expert: 

"The breaking strains, as given in yours 
of the 5th, go to confirm my work in the 
same direction, and all I have written or 
spoken on the subject. Two anomalies 
would appear to require explanation. Le- 
vant 87 M. thick breaks at 36 lbs. Again, 
a piece 55 M. breaks at 35 lbs. Both, I 
assume, are unpared. You will find that 
substance, as it increases, does not carry 
with it a corresponding increase in 
strength, that is, strength in proportion to 
substance increases at a decreasing ratio. 
This is due to the fact that as age creeps 
on the number of fibres do not increase, 
but do increase in thickness and some mus- 
cular strength, but later not proportion- 
ately. Examples: a rope made of 6 strands 
of *4" thick is not as strong as a rope made 
of 12 strands and *4" thick in diameter. 
The more fibres to a given area, so is 
the increase in strength proportionately. 
Hence if you have a piece of leather 2" 
square and 87 M. thick, and assume you 
have 1,000,000 fibres, it will not have a 
breaking strain equal to a 2" say 45 M. 



CHIVBRS 



167 



thick and containing 1,500,000 fibres. The 
second anomaly, namely, why does levant 
pared to 47 M. break at 22, and Niger pared 
to 32 M. break at 33? The explanation 
rests entirely upon two factors: 

1. Levant contains from 40 to 50 per cent 
of tan, which implies over-tanning, whereas 
Niger contains about 27 per cent of tan. 

2. The levant has been robbed of its nat- 
ural nourishing fat prior to tan. The small 
amount of fat in Niger has been left in. 
If the levant contains grease, and still has 
a lower tearing factor, it follows that the 
displaced natural fats have not been prop- 
erly replaced to insure absorption by the 
fibres as in life. The Nigerian tanner in 
his so-called ignorance, has been working 
along the lines of least resistance, allowing 
atmospheric conditions, temperature and 
time to operate, with results which give a 
higher satisfactory result than can be ob- 
tained under civilized conditions. In fact, 
we have much to relearn, but unfortunately 
the civilized tanner thinks he knows bet- 
ter. I do not know of any skin on the 
market at the present time which possesses 
the qualities appertaining to longevity, 
withstanding attrition, etc., as is pos- 
sessed by those tanned in Nigeria, and now 
known as Niger skins. I am of the opinion 
that of the bookbinding skins on sale, the 
Niger skins are the most suitable and meet 
all the demands made by the Society of 
Arts report. Upon that point I have no 
hesitation in expressing that opinion." 

It must be borne in mind that the figures 
here given deal with only one quality of 
the leathers under consideration, that is, 
their strength in resisting the tearing 
strain. Other important qualities are nec- 
essary. This may be illustrated by refer- 
ring to the hand-grained Persian goat, 
whose order of value is 10, and whose 
strength ratio is .52 in tearing strain. This 
leather has been subjected to the following 
criticism by the Society of Arts Commit- 
tee, and we may therefore expect to dis- 
cover very different results after two or 
three years' use in the library. The report 
says: "The Persian tanned goat skins are 
extremely bad. Books bound in this ma- 
terial are shown to have become unfit for 



use in less than twelve months after bind- 
ing." This doubtless because of bad tan- 
ning, the results of which are not immedi- 
ately apparent. 

The breaking strain of various leathers 
is arrived at by taking strips in the way 
depicted in Fig. IX, A and B. These will 
be found set out on Fig. XI, first the thick- 
ness, then the breaking strain, the strength 
ratio follows and its order of value. 

In a general manner the tests for break- 
ing coincide with the "tearing" tests, and 
become together valuable as giving data of 
the comparative mechanical strength of 
leathers. It is necessary always that this 
strength should be allied with good tan 
ning and dyeing, in order to obtain the full 
advantages required. 

This short inquiry has already shown the 
necessity for constant watchfulness in the 
selection of leathers for books requiring to 
be protected either for extra hard usage or 
for a very long life. 

Until these tests were undertaken we 
have always assumed that the higher 
priced French levant moroccos were above 
any reproach, except that of their cost, but 
it is here demonstrated that they are not 
reliable, and that the native tanned skins 
of Africa are greatly their superior in both 
respects of strength and probable long- 
evity. 

Are we therefore to select from the oper 
market Niger leather when it is required 
for either of these two purposes — of 
strength and longevity — for the binding of 
books ? 

The following experiment will show the 
danger of trusting with any confidence to 
the commercial use of the word "Niger." 
Leathers purporting to be Niger leather 
and to have the wearing qualities which 
have already become known in the trade, 
were recently offered for sale and were 
subjected to chemical and mechanial tests. 
The results showed that in one case the 
leather was decidedly not Nigerian, and 
in the other that if it were Nigerian it 
had been so abused in its tanning and dye- 
ing treatment as to destroy its distinguish- 
ing merits. 

The mechanical tests show the results 



168 



PASADENA CONFERENCE 



depicted upon Fig. XII. While real Niger- 
ian leather shows a tearing strain of 189 
to a thickness of 190, the leather offered 
as Nigerian leather and now under ques- 
tion showed for a thickness of 88 a tear- 
ing strain of only 27. In other words, real 
Nigerian leather showed three times the 
strength of the imitation. 

This demonstrates either one of two 
cases: the leather, which we will call 
"Imitation," could not have been Nigerian 
leather at all, or it had become partially 
destroyed in fitting it for the market. The 
grain was evidently plated, the color far 
too even and the skin too perfect in ap- 
pearance to be real Nigerian leather. A 
breakdown in use would occur indubitably 
where strength would be required, and 
should the leather be used for books re- 
quiring to give long service, its treachery 
would become presently more apparent and 
disastrous. If the leather were real Niger- 
ian and had been dealt with so that two- 
thirds of its original strength would be 
lost, other results of premature decay would 
most certainly follow. It is, therefore, ap- 
parent that care and inquiry must be made 
by librarians who intend to have their 
books properly bound and covered. 

The importance of using the best of 
leathers for the binding of books cannot be 
overestimated. These are not necessarily 
high in price if fine finish is dispensed with. 

There is no material existing which can 
be compared with leather for lining or 
binding the backs of books. 

It is the only thing we know of which, 
with its many qualities of thickness, pli- 
ability, strength and tenacious adhesive- 
ness, is at all adapted to the varying quali- 
ties of modern books. 

Fig. I shows how many varieties there 
are, and a calculation from these data or 
the experience of any librarian or book- 
binder will tell of many hundreds of kinds 
of books. 

The range of appropriate materials when 
leather is not used is woefully short, and 
in no case can any of them be used for 
the linings of the backs of books; their 
effectiveness is limited to their service as 
covering materials only. Leather answers 



both purposes of covering and lining or 
binding the back. 

The statement in Fig. XIII will illustrate 
this point. While the books themselves 
have a very wide range of inconstancy, the 
materials at the disposal of the machine 
binder, as distinguished from the leather 
binder are, as seen, very limited. 

In cloth, endpapers, linings, etc., as here 
set out, the qualities are very few. The 
case is totally different with leather. A 
careful and informed binder is able to ob- 
tain such a range of qualities in leather 
as enable him appropriately and effectively 
to deal with the hundreds and more varia- 
tions of modern books. 

Much has recently been written of ma- 
chine sewing and its value for library 
books, but machine sewing can be used 
only by sewing through the fold, and it 
has been demonstrated that with 7,000 dif- 
ferent books published during the last 
three years, only 400 of them were of good 
enough quality to allow of being sewed 
through. 

All the other 6,600 books were of paper 
so bad that the act of folding deprived the 
paper of 50 per cent of its strength, while 
its original strength showed a deterioration 
of more than 50 per cent over that in com- 
mon use twenty years ago. 

Nearly all modern books must be hand- 
sewed in order to give reasonable service, 
and they must be bound and covered with 
pliable, tough and chemically pure leather 
to insure long life. 

The librarian who is interested enough 
to give the subject a little time and atten- 
tion, may obtain both these qualities for 
the books under his charge, and this at no 
greater cost than is often incurred for un- 
reliable work and materials. 

Mr. HILL: Mr. Chivers showed us a 
piece of levant morocco, a piece which 
had been in use fifteen years, and I wonder 
if he has a piece of pig skin for comparison 
in the same way. 

Mr. CHIVERS: No, I have not, but I can 
tell you about the pig skin. I was chiefly 
instrumental, twenty-five years ago, in 
bringing pig skin on the market. Pig skin 
is only the grandson of hog skin. I never 







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169 



CLOTHS TESTED FOR BREAKING STRAIN 

SIZE OF PIECE TESTED V/$ inch x y 2 inch 


MATERIAL 


BREAKING STRAIN 


Price 
per Yard 


Warp 


Woof 


Mean 


Vellum Buckram 


70 


43 


56-5 


41c 


Ditto 


66 


42 


54 


34c 


Ditto 


63 


30 


46 5 


41c 


Ditto 


55 


38 


46 5 


41c 


Art Buckram (all linen) 


83 


44 


635 


41c 


Canvas Buckram 


42 


15 


28-5 


28c 


Ditto 


39 


26 


325 


28c 


II . Cloth 


65 


29 


47 


25c 


Unglazed Buckram 


68 


40 


54 


41c 


Library Cloth 


55 


39 


47 


34c 


Ditto 


30 


10 


20 


21c 


All Linen 


48 


35 


415 


34c 


Durabline (thick) 


68 


30 


49 


107c 

(Extra Wide) 


Ditto (thin) 


45 


18 


315 


44c 


Editions Cloth 


25 


10 


17-5 


20c 



Fig. Ill 
170 



LININGS TESTED FOR BREAKING CHAINS 

SIZE OP PIECE TESTED 1% inch x 1 inch 


MATERIAL 


BREAKING STRAIN 


Price 
per Yard 


Warp 


Woof 


Mean 


Silketle (Sleeve Lining) 


41 


22 


315 


27c 


Ditto 


31 


15 


23 


26c 


Taffetine 


25 


14 


19-5 


31c 


Jaconet 


31 


12 


215 


15c 


Ditto 


25 


IT 


21 


15c 


Ditto 


18 


15 


165 


14c 


Ditto 


10 


8 


9 


14c 


Linen 


35 


25 


30 


73c 


Ditto 


55 


28 


415 


52c 


Ditto 


40 


21 


30 5 


38c 


Linenette 


32 


22 


27 


16c 


Ditto 


29 


18 


23 5 


16c 


Cambric 


31 


10 


20 5 


12c 


Ditto 


24 


13 


18-5 


10c 


Holland 


33 


27 


30 


24c 


Glove Lining 


32 


18 


25 


16c 



Fig. IV 
171 



PHOTOMICROGRAPHS 

» TRANSVERSE SECTIONS i 

"EDITIONS" CLOTH 



WARP 

(x56) 

BREAKING 
STRrtl/v 

211bs 




#~*mb 



WOOF 
(x£6) 

BfifAK/nQ 
STXMN 

lllbs 




Fig. V 



172 



PHOTOMICROGRAPHS 

OF TRANSVERSE SECTIONS OF 

LIBRARY CLOTH 



WARP 

(x56) 

BHEAKINQ 

55Ibs 




WOOF 

&REAKINQ 
STRAW 

391bs 




Fig. VI 



173 



PHOTOMICROGRAPHS 

OF TRANSVERSE SECTIONS OF 

LIBRARY CLOTH 

{SMOOTH jSVfiJr.ACE) 



'WARP 
Cx56) 

BREAKING 
STRAIN 

601bs 




WOOF 

(x£6) 

BREAKING 
STRAIN 

401bs 




Fig. VII 



174 





175 



TEARING STRAINS OF VARIOUS LEATHERS 

SIZE OP PIECE TESTED 2y 8 inch x 1% inch 


Ret 
No. 


LEATHER TESTED 


Thickness in 1000th of in. 


Tearing Strain in lbs. 


Strength 
Ratio 


Order oi 
Value 


A 


B 


c 


Total 


A 


B 


c 


Total 


9 


Niger Leather(un-pared) 


70 


65 


55 


190 


63 


81 


45 


189 


•99 


2 


2 


Niger Leather (goat) 


45 


40 


39 


124 


31 


40 


32 


103 


•83 


4 


— 


4 ' " (sheep) 


40 


40 


36 


116 


36 


41 


35 


112 


•96 


3 


— 


" " (pared) 


32 


33 


33 


98 


33 


21 


20 


74 


■75 


5 


1 


Soft Niger Leather 


21 


21 


20 


62 


16 


16 


12 


44 


•70 


6 


11 


Imitation Niger Leather 


29 


29 


30 


88 


9 


7 


11 


27 


•30 


15 


Ditto 


29 


29 


29 


87 


10 


11 


10 


31 


•35 


14 


— 


Thick Levant (un-pared) 


87 


80 


75 


242 


36 


24 


37 


97 


•40 


13 


3 


Levant Morocco 


50 


55 


50 


155 


20 


21 


22 


63 


•40 


13 


14 


Ditto 


45 


48 


45 


98 


10 


10 


9 


29 


•29 


16 


10 


Ditto 


55 


50 


50 


155 


35 


35 


28 


98 


•63 


7 


7 


Morocco (thick) 


70 


57 


55 


182 


29 


21 


23 


73 


•40 


13 


5 


Morocco (thin) 


37 


37 


39 


113 


15 


16 


19 


50 


•44 


11 


13 


Hard Grain'd Persian Goat 


31 


32 


34 


97 


19 


20 


12 


51 


•52 


10 


6 


Pigskin 


36 


34 


32 


102 


14 


18 


11 


43 


•42 


12 


12 


Pigskin 


33 


30 


30 


93 


26 


13 


15 


54 


•58 


8 


— 


Seal 


40 


45 


36 


121 


23 


23 


20 


66 


54 


9 


8 


Roan 


22 


22 


23 


67 


20 


15 


12 


47 


•70 


6 


— 


Cowhide 


23 


25 


18 


66 


5 


5 


4* 


14J 


•21 


18 


— 


Cowhide 


12 


12 


12 


36 


4 


n 


2* 


n 


•25 


17 


4 


Calf 


25 


23 


32 


80 


6 


5 


6* 


X ' 2 


.21 


18 


— 


Vellum 


10 


10 


18 


38 


11 


14 


20 


45 


L 18 


1 


ODD PIECES OF BOOKBINDERS' LEATHERS TESTED 




Morocco 


34 


— 


— 


34 


12 


— 


— 


12 


•35 






Ditto 


35 


— 


— 


35 


20 


— 


— 


20 


•57 






Ditto 


31 


— 


— 


31 


16 


— 


— 


16 


•51 






Ditto 


23 


— 


— 


23 


6 


. — 


— 


6 


•26 






Law Sheep 


38 


— 


— 


38 


6 


— 


— 


6 


15 






Cowhide 


28 


— 


— 


28 


5 


— 


— 


5 


•17 






Ditto 


33 


— 


— 


33 


7 


— 


— 


7 


•21 





Fig. X 

176 



BREAKING STRAINS OF VARIOUS LEATHERS 

SIZE OF PIECE TESTED 1% x y 2 inch 


Ref. 
No. 


LEATHER TESTED. 


Thickness 
thousandths of in. 


Breaking Strain 
in lbs. 


Strength 
Ratio. 


Order of 
Value. 


A 


B 


Total 


A 


B 


Total 


9 


Niger Leather 


60 


52 


112 


61 


111 


172 


1'53 


2 


2 


Niger Leather (Goat) 


43 


40 


83 


73 


92 


165 


L98 


1 


1 


Soft Niger Leather 


21 


21 


42 


21 


28 


49 


1-16 


4 


11 


Imitation Niger Leather 


30 


30 


60 


31 


22 


53 


•88 


7 


3 


Levant Morocco 


63 


65 


128 


62 


75 


137 


1-07 


5 


14 


Levant Morocco 


45 


48J 


931 


18 


28 


46 


•49 


12 


10 


Levant Morocco 


56 


52 


108 


32 


33 


65 


•60 


11 


7 


Morocco (thick) 


04 
40 


50 


114 


34 


35 


69 


•60 


11 


5 


Morocco (thin) 


461 


861 


30 


32 


62 


•71 


10 


13 


Hard Grained Persian 
Goat 


321 


321 


65 


25 


35 


60 


•92 


6 


6 


Pigskin 


34 


371 


"i 


43 


53 


96 


134 


3 


12 


Pigskin 


32| 


30 


621 


25 


28 


53 


•84 


8 


8 


Roan 


27 


24 


51 


20 


18 


38 


•74 


9 


4 


Calf 


24| 


25 


491 


6 



8 


14 


•28 


13 



Fig. XI 
177 



IMITATION (SOJ.X* AS J*£AH.) 

NIGERIAN LEATHER 





THICKNESS 


TEAfyNQ STRAW 






THICKNESS 


TEARING STRAW 


A 


29 


9 


A 


29 


IO 


B 


29 


7 


"b1 


29 


II 


cl 


30 


II 


c 


29 


IO 


88 


HtiiJtjTijiiiiliii; 


ZJ 


67 


ii ,, il , . J /ainn'il 

II 1'" hIiV- ■*! u*- 

sfc.- 


31 





















NIGERIAN LEATHER 

THIN THICK 



B 



THICKNESS 



21 



21 



20 



62 



TEARING STRAIN 



16 



16 



12 






44 





THICKNESS 


TEARING STRAIN 


A 


70 


63 


b1 


65 


81 


c 


55 


45 


,90 H 189 



Fig. XII 



NEARLY 

CONSTANTS 


PRACTICAL 

VARIANTS 


INCONSTANTS 


QUALITY OJT 
BIATjOIA/C 

Quality of eiorh . . 
, , jrfacpipe seco/og . 

Jboards 

Thread 

„ J^ulls, supers ar>d\ 
„ o/j'nfngs •••••{ 

ifapes ar>d str/ngs . 

G/)d-papers. . . . 
gttccLcf?/7?e/?£ of froo/c 

to coc/er. 


. 3 Values 

. 5 - 

• 4 .. 


czyj\L./TY 0/7 

BOOKS 

( VARIES FROM 
THICKNESS OF PAPERS [ 2'5 ro }3 25 

f MARIES FROM 
STRENGTH op PAPERS | g]bS TttlClbS 

THICKNESS o, SECTIONS { ™% ™ 
f VAMES FROM 

SIZE OF BOOK 1 6i-4f 7t,IOix8 
SIZE OF BOOK ^ w 30x84 9Q.INS 

f VARt£S FROM 

wuQHTorMOKJ %lb ro 5*lbs 



Fig. XIII 



178 



HILL 



179 



would allow it to be called hog skin. Some 
of the manufacturers wanted to call it that, 
but I would not permit it. It would be a 
case of living on the reputation of its an- 
cient relatives. This pig skin was sent from 
Chicago, but it was never used generally. 
At any rate, it was used more largely for 
library purposes than anything else. And 
the leather never was allowed to be treated 
as sheep and these other leathers which 
show signs of deterioration. I don't believe 
pig skin is as good a leather as sheep. Pig 
skin has really been kept out of the com- 
petitive market and the result is very 
good. 

The CHAIRMAN: The subject is an 
interesting one, but there is hardly 
time to pursue it further, and we will now 
proceed to the regular business of the day 
and hear the report of the Committee to 
confer with the publishers of newspapers 
on the deterioration of newspaper paper, 
Mr. Frank P. Hill, of the Brooklyn public 
library, Chairman. 

Mr. HILL: Mr. President, the Committee 
appointed to confer with the publishers 
on the deterioration of newspaper paper, 
consists of Messrs. Wadlin, of Boston, Chiv- 
ers and Hill of Brooklyn. Notice of the ap- 
pointment of this Committee was received 
by the members so late as to make it im- 
possible to present a satisfactory report 
at this meeting. Mr. Chivers has made a 
large number of experiments with news- 
paper paper and the Committee has made 
arrangements with a number of the pub- 
lishers in New York to meet in conference 
some time in the fall. Therefore, all I 
can do now is to make a report of progress 
and request a continuance of the Com- 
mittee. 

Mr. ANDREWS: Mr. Chairman, perhaps 
Mr. Hill could say if they have made any 
further experiments in the strengthening 
of paper. Mr. Chivers alluded to the use of 
cellit. Is that the same as the German so- 
lution which we heard about at Bretton 
Woods? 

Mr. HILL: Mr. President, it is similar, 
but the members of the Committee feel 
they would prefer not to make a partial 
report at this time, because it would be 



more satisfactory to complete the experi- 
ments which Mr. Chivers has already be- 
gun, rather than make the report piece- 
meal. 

The CHAIRMAN: The report will be 
received. I suppose that the Executive 
Board will continue the Committee. 

I am sure that you do not wish me to 
introduce President Benjamin Ide Wheeler, 
of the University of California, in a long 
speech. That is not necessary. You all know 
him and I am sure it is your wish that 
he should proceed as soon as possible to 
the address. I therefore have pleasure in in- 
troducing President BENJAMIN IDE 
WHEELER, of the University of California. 
(President Wheeler spoke on the atti- 
tude librarians should hold toward the 
work of their profession, but as his re- 
marks were entirely extempore he has re- 
quested that they be not published.) 

The CHAIRMAN: We thank President 
Wheeler for his charming address, 
which I am very certain will help 
many of us to realize that we are emerg- 
ing. I would venture the assertion that 
some of us had gotten our heads above 
water and stretched out our arms and 
were preparing to strike out vigorously for 
the professional shore. 

Some one said yesterday that California 
seemed to be a composite photograph of 
the United States. We meet people from 
all sections of the country and we find 
the conditions of many sections reproduced 
here. Especially is this true of the educa- 
tional institutions of California, not only 
of the state university, of which Dr. Ben- 
jamin Ide Wheeler is president, but also 
of Leland Stanford University. We have 
here in Pasadena a most admirable insti- 
tution, the Throop Polytechnic Institute, 
and the head and guiding soul of that in- 
stitution is President J. A. B. SCHERER, 
whom we are to have the pleasure of hear- 
ing now. 

BOOKS AND THE EFFICIENT LIFE 

Efficiency is the ability to get profitable 
results with a minimum of friction and 
waste. Everybody is in favor of efficiency